Forgings can be divided into the following categories. Mechanical forgings
A diesel engine is a type of power machine that is commonly used as an engine. Taking large diesel engines as an example, the forgings used are cylinder head, main journal, crankshaft end flange output end shaft, connecting rod, piston rod, piston head, crosshead pin, crankshaft transmission gear, ring gear, intermediate gear and dye pump. More than ten kinds of body.
By weight, about 85% of the components on the aircraft are forgings. The turbine disk of the aircraft engine, the rear journal (hollow shaft), the blade, the wing of the wing, the rib plate of the fuselage, the wheel bracket, the inner and outer cylinders of the landing gear, etc. are all important forgings related to aircraft safety. Aircraft forgings are mostly made of high-strength wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, nickel-based alloys and other precious materials. In order to save materials and save energy, aircraft forgings are mostly produced by die forging or multi-directional forging presses. Automobile forging is calculated by weight, and there are 71.9% forgings on the car. The general car consists of 15 parts, such as the body, the car, the engine, the front axle, the rear axle, the frame, the gearbox, the drive shaft and the steering system. The characteristics of the automobile forgings are complex, light weight, poor working conditions and safety. High standard. For example, crankshafts, connecting rods, camshafts used in automobile engines, front beams required for front axles, knuckles, half shafts used in rear axles, half shaft bushings, transmission gears in bridge boxes, etc., are all related. Security critical forgings for safe operation of cars.
Forgings occupy an extremely important position in the weapons industry. By weight, 60% of the tanks are forged. Gun barrel, muzzle retractor and stern in artillery, rifled barrel and triangular bayonet in infantry weapons, deep water bomb launcher and fixed seat for rocket and submarine, stainless steel valve body for nuclear submarine high pressure cooler, shells, Guns, etc., are forged products. In addition to Steel Forgings, weapons are also made from other materials.
Marine forgings are divided into three categories, main forgings, shaft forgings and rudder forgings. The main unit forgings are the same as the diesel forgings. The shaft forging has a thrust shaft, an intermediate shaft, and the like. Forgings for rudder systems include rudder stock, rudder stock, and rudder pins.
According to the weight of the equipment, the proportion of forgings in mining equipment is 12-24%. Mining equipment includes: mining equipment, hoisting equipment, crushing equipment, grinding equipment, washing equipment, and sintering equipment.
Forgings have a wide range of applications in petrochemical equipment. Such as manholes and flanges of spherical storage tanks, various tube sheets required for heat exchangers, forging cylinders (pressure vessels) for butt welding flange catalytic cracking reactors, barrel sections for hydrogenation reactors, fertilizers The top cover, bottom cover, and head required for the equipment are forgings.
Thermal power forgings
There are four key forgings in thermal power plants, namely the rotor and retaining ring of the turbine generator, and the impeller and turbine rotor in the steam turbine.
Nuclear power is divided into two types: pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The main large forgings of nuclear power plants can be divided into two major categories: pressure shells and internal components. The pressure shell includes: a cylinder flange, a nozzle section, a nozzle, an upper cylinder, a lower cylinder, a cylinder transition section, a bolt, and the like. The internal components of the pile are operated under severe conditions such as high temperature, high pressure, strong neutron irradiation, boric acid water corrosion, scouring and hydraulic vibration, so 18-8 austenitic stainless steel is used.
Important forgings in hydropower station equipment include turbine shafts, hydro-generator shafts, mirror plates, thrust heads, etc.
Precision forging refers to the forming technology that meets the dimensional accuracy requirements of parts without a small amount of machining or machining. There are two main ways to achieve precision forging: refined blanks, that is, directly forged blanks that meet the requirements of precision machining. Precision forgings, all or parts of the parts are directly processed by precision forging, thus reducing the amount of machine added. There are many precision forging processes currently used in production. According to different forming temperatures, it can be divided into hot forging, cold forging, warm forging, and composite forging.
1. Hot precision forging process
Hot forging refers to a precision forging process in which forging is performed at a temperature above the recrystallization temperature. Since the deformation temperature is high, the deformation resistance of the material is low and the plasticity is good at the time of forging, so that it is easy to form a part having complicated geometry.
2. Cold precision forging process
The cold forging process is a precision forging forming technique for forging at room temperature. Due to the forming at room temperature, the dimensional error caused by thermal expansion and contraction is avoided, so the shape and size of the workpiece for cold precision forging are easier to control, and the surface of the forging does not produce oxidation and burning, etc., and has a high surface quality, so the hot essence The forging precision of forging and warm precision forging is lower than that of cold precision forging.
3, warm precision forging process
Warm forging is a precision forging technique in which a metal is heated to a temperature suitable for a temperature below the recrystallization temperature. It has the advantages of hot forging and cold forging, avoiding their defects, effectively reducing the load on the equipment and the mold, improving the plasticity and fluidity of the metal, without forging annealing.
4, composite precision forging process
The composite precision forging process combines cold, warm and hot forging processes to complete a forging technique of workpiece forging. It can exert the advantages of cold, warm and hot forging, and avoids the disadvantages of cold, warm and hot forging. At the same time, the parts produced by the composite precision forging process have improved mechanical properties, dimensional accuracy and surface quality compared to those produced by a single forging technique. At present, the commonly used composite forging process mainly includes warm forging - cold finishing, hot forging - cold forging, warm extrusion - cold pendulum, warm precision forging - cold extrusion, hot precision forging - cold pendulum, etc.
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