Mechanical Knowledge

What is Lathe Machine? Lathe Machine Introduction

1. What is lathe machine?

A lathe is a machine tool that is rotating a work piece with a fixed tool to perform various operations such as turning, facing, knurling, grooving etc., to remove metal from the work piece to give it the desired shape and size.

2. Different types of Lather machine/Turning machine

Below introduce the different lathe machine.

High-speed lathe

Engine lathe

Desktop lathe

Tool room lathe

Winch and turret lathe

Wheeled lathe

Gap bed lathe

T type lathe

Automatic lathe

3. Working Principle of Lathe machine/Turning machine

What is Lathe Machine

4. Main Parts of Lathe machine/Turning machine

The main parts of the lathe/turning machine are as below.

Lathe Machine Introduction

(1). Headstock of Lathe machine/Turning machine

It is present on the left-hand side of the lathe. It holds the gear train, main spindle, chuck, gear speed control levers, and feed controllers. It is aligned with the tailstock. The headstock is made up of cast iron.


It is that part of the lathe machine which is used to hold the workpiece. It is attached to the main spindle of the headstock. It rotates with the spindle and also rotates the workpiece. In the lathe machine, we generally use three-jaw or four-jaw check. The three jaw of the three jaw chuck is made to move simultaneously but the jaws of the four jaw chuck moves independently.

Main Spindle

This part of the lathe machine is used to hold cylindrical work piece within it. It is a hollow shaft on which the chuck is mounted.

Feed Selector

It is used to select the direction of the feed i.e. whether we want to move the tool from left to right or right to left. Feed selector is present on the headstock.

(2). Tailstock

It is present on the right-hand side of the lathe. It is used to provide supports to the workpiece. It supports the workpiece from one end i.e. right end.

(3). Bed

It is the main part of the lathe. All the parts of the lathe are bolted on the bed. It comprises of headstock, tailstock, carriage guide ways and other parts. It is made of cast iron.

(4). Carriage

The carriage is present in the position between the headstock and tailstock. It carries apron, saddle, compound rest, cross slide and tool post.

Tool Post It is used to hold the tool. It has T-slot for holding the tool. The tool post is bolted on the carriage.

Compound Rest It is used to set the tool at a desired angle for taper turning and other operations.

Cross Slide The cross slide is used to move the tool perpendicular to the axis of the lathe.

Saddle The top portion of the carriage is called the saddle. Cross slide is mounted on the saddle.

Apron The front portion of the carriage is called apron. It contains all the moving and control mechanism of the carriage.

(5). Lead Screw

The lead screw is used to move the carriage automatically during threading.

(6). Feed Rod

It is used to move the carriage from left to right and vice versa.

(7). Chip Pan

Chip pan is used to collect the chips that are produced during the lathe operation. It is present at the bottom of the lathe.

(8). Hand Wheel

It is the wheel that is operated by hand to move the cross slide, carriage, tailstock and other parts that have hand wheel.

5. Operations for Lathe machine/Turning machine

(1). Facing

What is facing? Facing is the first step that need to be done on the workpiece. It is a machining operation that is done to produce flat surfaces at the ends of the workpiece. This operation is performed by feeding the tool perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the chuck.

What is facing

(2). Turning

What is turning? turning is the process that the excess material is removed from the surface of the workpiece to produce a cylindrical surface of the desired shape and size. During the turning operation, the feed is moved along the axis of rotation of the chuck. It reduces the diameter of the cylindrical workpiece.

What is turning

(3). Boring

What is boring? Boring is the process of removing material from the hole of the workpiece is called boring. Holes are bored with the help of single-point cutting tool.

What is boring

(4). Drilling

What is drilling? Drilling is the process making holes in the workpiece by the use of drills. The drill is held in the tailstock and the drilling operation is done by advancing the drill in the workpiece by rotating the handle of the tailstock.

What is drilling

(5). Reaming

What is reaming? Reaming is the process of enlarging the holes to accurate sizes is called reaming. Reaming is always performed after drilling operations. It is similar to the drilling process. The reamer is held in the tailstock to carry out reaming operation.

Reaming operation in lathe

(6). Counter Boring

What is counter boring? Counter boring is the process of boring a hole to more than one diameter on the same axis is called counter boring. This operation is performed by a boring tool.

What is counter boring

(7). Knurling

What is knurling? Knurling is the process of making indentations (recess or sharp depression) on the border of a workpiece. The knurling operation is done to provide a better grip on the job. It is performed by the knurling tool. The knurling tool is pressed against the job to perform the knurling operation.

What is knurling

(8). Chamfering

What is chamfering? Chamfering is the process of beveling the extreme ends of a workpiece. It is done in order to remove the burrs, to protect the end of the workpiece from being damaged and to have a better look.

What is chamfering

(9). Parting Off

What is parting off? Parting off is the process of cutting a workpiece after it has been machined to the required shape and size.

What is parting off

(10). Grooving

What is grooving? Grooving is the process of creating a narrow slot on the workpiece is called grooving. It is also known as recessing or necking.

What is grooving

(11). Forming

What is forming? Forming is a process in which a convex, concave or any irregular surface is formed on the workpiece with the help of a forming tool. The forming tool having the required shape is used to perform forming operation.

What is forming

(12). Taper Turning

What is taper turning? Taper turning is the process in which a conical shape is produced on the workpiece. During taper turning the feed is set at an angle to the workpiece.

What is taper turning

(13). Threading

What is threading? Threading is the process of making threads on a cylindrical job is called threading.

What is threading

We should know more details about the lathe/turning machine so that we could know the mechanic knowledge deeply. Any tips need to know please do not hesitate to email me at rita@desheng-precision.com.

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