What is a CNC master?
To become a CNC master requires many years of work experience. Choosing the profession of CNC means that the early career is hard and rough. The basic knowledge learned in school is pitiful to meet the needs of the factory. A lot of time must be with the workers, dry lathes, milling machines, grinders, machining centers, etc., and then in the office to compile craftsmanship, estimate material consumption, and calculate quotas. You must be familiar with the performance and processing skills of various types of machine tools. You must have the theoretical level of an engineer, and the practical experience and hands-on ability of a senior technician...
1. Must be an excellent craftsman, this is the basis for becoming a CNC master
1). Familiar with the structure and process characteristics of drilling, milling, boring, grinding and planing machines.
2). Familiar with the properties of processed materials.
3). Solid basic knowledge of tool theory, master the conventional cutting parameters of the tool, etc.
4). Familiar with the company's process specifications, guidelines, general requirements that can be achieved by various process processing, and process routes of conventional parts. Reasonable material consumption and working hours quota, etc.
5). Collect a certain amount of tool, machine tool, and mechanical standard data. Especially be familiar with the tool system used in CNC machine tools.
6). Familiar with the selection and maintenance of coolant.
7). Have a common sense understanding of related types of work. For example: casting, electrical processing, heat treatment, etc.
8). Have a good fixture foundation.
9). Understand the assembly requirements and use requirements of the processed parts.
10). Have a good foundation of measurement technology.
2. CNC masters must be proficient in CNC programming and computer software applications
The criteria for a good procedure are:
1). Easy to understand and organized, everyone can understand.
2). The fewer instructions in a block, the better, for the purpose of being simple, practical and reliable. From the perspective of programming, the commands are G00 and G01. The others are auxiliary commands, which are convenient for programming.
3). Easy to adjust. It is best not to change the program when the machining accuracy of the parts needs to be fine-tuned. For example, if the tool is worn out, to adjust, just change the length and radius in the tool offset table.
4). Convenient operation. The programming should be compiled according to the operating characteristics of the machine tool, which is conducive to observation, inspection, measurement and safety. For example, if the same kind of part and the same processing content are processed separately in a vertical machining center and a horizontal machining center, the procedures are definitely different. In mechanical processing, the simplest method is the best method. As long as you have practical experience, you will definitely agree with this sentence!
3. Able to operate CNC machine tools, the basic skills of CNC masters
The operation is sensitive to the hand. Beginners, especially college students, know how to do it in their hearts, but they just don’t let it be. In this process, you must learn: system operation mode, fixture installation, part datum alignment, tool setting, zero offset setting, tool length compensation setting, radius compensation, tool and tool holder loading and unloading, tool edge Grinding, measurement of parts (proficient in the use of vernier calipers, micrometer cards, dial indicators, dial indicators, inner diameter lever indicators), etc. The ones that best reflect the level of operation are: horizontal machining centers and large gantry (moving beams, top beams) machining centers.
The practice of operation requires understanding! Sometimes there is an artistic conception of "a leisurely mind, but a wonderful point is difficult to talk to you"! In the CNC workshop, you should calm down and practice!
Generally speaking, the process from the processing of the first part to the qualified processing accuracy requires the CNC programming technician to complete it in person. You can't operate the machine tool proficiently, you can't pass this level.
4. The CNC master must have a good tooling and fixture foundation and measurement technology level
The reason that tooling fixture and measurement technology are listed separately here is because it plays an important role in the quality of parts processing as much as the accuracy of the machine tool, and is one of the signs that reflect the level of craftsmen. The entire process system: the accuracy of the machine tool is guaranteed by the machine tool manufacturer, and the tools and cutting parameters are provided by the tool vendor. Generally speaking, there are no big problems. Only the tooling and fixture are specially designed by the process personnel for specific parts.
During commissioning, the first part was unqualified, and more than half of the reasons were caused by unreasonable fixture positioning, clamping pressure point, and clamping force. The difficulty in analyzing the cause of the fixture is that it can only be qualitative but difficult to quantify. If there is no experience in fixture design and part clamping, the difficulty will be great. For learning in this area, it is recommended to consult senior technicians who are doing precision jig boring machines. One of the basic skills of machining when accurately measuring the level is to be able to use vernier calipers, micrometers, dial indicators, dial indicators, inner diameter lever meters, calipers, etc. proficiently. Sometimes parts processing, three-coordinate measuring machine is not expected. Must be measured manually. Imagine that the parts are inaccurate. Which leader and worker will trust you?
5. CNC masters must be familiar with CNC machine tools, proficient in the maintenance of CNC machine tools
1). Familiar with CNC electrical components and control principles. Can tell the name and function of each component in the electric box, and understand the electrical schematic diagram. The alarm content can be found based on the electrical alarm number.
2). Understand the structure and transmission principle of the ball screw. Know which factors have a greater impact on machine accuracy.
3). Understand the structure of the bearings at both ends of the machine tool screw and its influence on the accuracy of the machine tool.
4). Understand the lubrication system of the machine tool (bearings, main shaft, motion pairs, gear box, etc.), and know the distribution of lubrication points. The brand of machine lubricating oil and the normal consumption of oil every week or month.
5). Understand the cooling system of machine tools: cutting (water, air) cooling, spindle cooling, electric box cooling, etc.
6). Understand the main transmission structure of the machine tool, and the specific data characteristics between the speed and torque of each machine tool.
7). Understand the characteristics of the machine tool guide rail pair: is it a linear rail or a sliding rail, how rigid (carrying capacity)?
8). Common operating faults can be eliminated (such as: exceeding limit, tool magazine tool number error, etc.)
9). Proficient in various precision (static and dynamic) indicators and detection methods of machine tools.
10). Familiar with the tool magazine mechanism and the principle of tool change.
6. Develop good habits, adapt to the characteristics of CNC machining, and professionalism of CNC masters
CNC masters should be humble, rigorous, calm, rigorous thinking, methodical and independent.
1). The processing of some large parts, not only has a lot of processing content, but also the conversion of space three-dimensional coordinates. The calculation of the processing trajectory is very complicated and difficult to determine. If the problem is not considered meticulously and comprehensively, and the calculation is not accurate, the more chaotic the program modification during debugging, the greater the probability of error. "Think twice before acting" is most appropriate here.
2). The part debugging process is a process of multi-person cooperation, including operators, inspectors, fixture design, fixture assembly personnel, etc. When problems arise, you should consult them more, do more experiments, and avoid making arbitrary conclusions. Don't blame too much on employees who make mistakes, and have a "compassionate" mentality.
3). The work of the CNC machine tool is controlled by instructions. When debugging, you must be very clear about the path of the machine tool before pressing the "Start" button. Be rigorous and meticulous, and never let the machine tool move first. Once the program is wrong or the compensation parameters are incorrect, or the wrong coordinate system is selected. From scrapped parts, to serious accidents. Those who are grumpy, clueless, and do not change after repeated instruction are not suitable for CNC machine operation.
4). When there is a problem during debugging and processing, please calm down and never panic, and then misoperation occurs. The psychological quality is better.
5). When the parts are unqualified for many times during debugging, the analysis must be organized, and the responsibility must be based. Some relevant departments will give various explanations for various reasons. At this time, you must have your own opinion and remember: it does not matter if you do one thing wrong, but you cannot choose the wrong way to do it.
6). A craftsman, due to environmental constraints, technical capabilities always have limitations. Coupled with the rapid development of technology, there is always room for improvement. When the internal technology of the factory has been digested, we must keep our eyes open and follow the advanced processing technology at home and abroad to learn and digest. Be a good adviser to the boss in terms of technology.