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Cnc Machines Definition. A Guide to CNC Machine


CNC machine play an important role in CNC machining. Now we talk about the basic of CNC Machine

1. The definition of CNC machine

CNC machine are short for Computer numerical control machine. The CNC machine  automatically processes the machined part according to the machining program. It includes machining process route, process parameters, tool trajectory, displacement, cutting parameters and auxiliary functions of the parts.

Cnc Machines Definition


2. Knowledge about CNC machining

When the CNC system is activated, the required CNC turning and MIlling will be programmed into the software and assigned to the corresponding machinery, which will perform the specified dimensional tasks, just like a robot.

On a CNC machine, CNC programming remains in the computer's memory. The code itself is written and edited by the programmer. The CNC system provides greater computing power. And the CNC system is by no means static, as new hints can be added to pre-existing programs through modified code.

3. Main components of CNC machine

1). Host: It is the main body of CNC machine, including machine body, columns, spindles, feed mechanisms and other mechanical components.

2). NC device: It is the core of CNC machine, including hardware (printed circuit board, CRT display, key box, paper tape reader, etc.) and corresponding software for inputting digital part programs, and completing storage of input information, Data transformation, interpolation calculation and various control functions.

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3). Driving device: It is the driving part of the NC machine tool actuator, including the spindle drive unit, feed unit, spindle motor and feed motor. Under the control of NC device, the main shaft and feed drive are realized by electric or electro-hydraulic servo system. When several feeds are linked, processing of positioning, straight line, plane curve and space curve can be completed.

4). Auxiliary devices: Some necessary supporting components of the index-controlled machine tool to ensure the operation of the CNC machine, such as cooling, chip removal, lubrication, lighting, monitoring, etc. It includes hydraulic and pneumatic devices, chip removal devices, exchange tables, CNC turntables and CNC indexing heads, as well as tools and monitoring and inspection devices.

5). Programming and other auxiliary equipment:  the equipment can be used to program and store parts outside the machine.

4. the characteristics of CNC machine

The main property of CNC machine is high machining accuracy and stable machining quality; Multi-coordinate can process complex-shaped parts; When machining parts are changed, generally only the NC program needs to be changed to save production time;

5. CNC machine programming

In CNC, the machine is operated by a numerical control system, in which a software program is specified to control the object. The language of CNC machining is called G code, which is used to control various behaviors of the corresponding machine, such as speed, feed rate and coordination. CNC machining can pre-program the speed and position of machine functions and run them through software in repetitive, predictable cycles,. Because of these features, the process has been adopted in all corners of the manufacturing industry, and is particularly important in the metal and plastics production sector.

6. Types of CNC machine

The types of CNC machine include the following:

1). Milling machine: The milling machine uses a rotary cutter to remove material.

2). Drill Machine: The drill rotates the drill onto the material to create holes and other shapes.

3). Lathe: The lathe gradually rotates the material by the cutting tool to make it reach the specifications.

4). Waterjet, laser and plasma cutting machines: These machines use advanced technology to cut parts from Sheet metal parts.

7. CNC machine processing technology

1) The basic CNC machining process includes: designing CAD models, converting CAD files to CNC programs, preparing CNC machine, performing machining operations, and designing CAD models.

2) CNC machining is a manufacturing process suitable for various industries, including automotive, aerospace, construction, and agriculture, and capable of producing a variety of products. The process includes several different computer-controlled machining operations, including machinery, Chemical, electrical, and thermal processing processes that remove the necessary materials from the workpiece to produce custom-designed parts or products. The most common mechanical CNC machining operations include: drilling, milling, turning, CNC drilling, etc.

8. CNC machine process steps

1). CAD Documents creating: Designers use computer-aided design (CAD) software to create 2D or 3D drawings.

2). Convert CAD files to CNC code.

3). Input CNC code.

4). Execute CNC code.



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