Mechanical Knowledge

Cnc Lathe, CNC machine Center in CNC machine shop

Deshengrui have rich experience in CNC machining, CNC milling, CNC turning, Grinding, drilling. And we also make final products from stamping parts, forged parts and casting parts. Now we are share some of our experience with current machines in CNC machine shop.

1. Ordinary Lathes

1) The main components of ordinary lathes

1 the headstock; 2 the three-jaw chuck; 3 the tool holder;

4 the small carriage; 5 the middle carriage; 6 the large carriage;

7 the tailstock; 8 the screw;

2) Ordinary lathes description

CA6140 lathe model meaning: C represents the lathe, A represents the first major improvement, 6 represents the horizontal type, 1 represents the basic type, and 40 represents the maximum rotation diameter;

CW6180: C refers to lathe, W stands for heavy, 6 stands for horizontal, 1 stands for ordinary (different from 2 saddle), 80 stands for bed turning diameter 800mm;

CM6132: C indicates a lathe, M indicates the general characteristic code of the machine tool (that is, a precision lathe), 6 indicates the code of a machine tool group (that is, a floor or an ordinary lathe group), 1 indicates the code of a machine tool type (that is, an ordinary lathe), and 32 indicates the maximum turning diameter It's 320mm.

3) Lathe Tool Description

1. Application and Tool of Lathe

Ordinary lathes are horizontal lathes that can perform various processes on various types of workpieces such as shafts, disks, and rings. They are often used to process the internal and external rotating surfaces, end faces and various internal and external threads of the workpiece. The corresponding tools and accessories can also be used. Drilling, reaming, tapping and knurling. Ordinary lathes are the most widely used ones, accounting for about 65% of the total number of lathes. They are called horizontal lathes because their spindles are placed horizontally.

The processing object is wide, and the adjustment range of the spindle speed and feed amount is large, which can process the inner and outer surfaces, end faces and internal and external threads of the workpiece. This lathe is mainly operated manually by workers, which has low production efficiency and is suitable for single-piece, small-batch production and repair workshops.

2. The tools are as follows


2. CNC Lathes or CNC turning Machine

1) CNC turret

rotary tool holders rotary tool holders rotary tool holders

These three types of rotary tool holders are mostly used for italic-type guide rail machine tools, which has the advantage of being able to hold multiple tools and processing complex parts

italic-type guide rail machine.

This is an italic-type guide rail machine.

2) CNC lathe is one of the more widely used CNC machine tools. It is mainly used for internal and external cylindrical surfaces of shaft parts or disk parts, internal and external conical surfaces with arbitrary taper angles, complex rotating internal and external curved surfaces, and cylindrical and conical threads. It can also perform grooving, drilling, reaming, and reaming. Holes and boring.

The CNC machine tool automatically processes the machined part according to the machining program prepared in advance. We compile the machining process route, process parameters, tool trajectory, displacement, cutting parameters and auxiliary functions of the parts into a machining program sheet according to the instruction code and program format specified by the CNC machine tool, and then record the contents of this program sheet On the control medium, and then input to the numerical control device of the numerical control machine tool, thereby directing the machine tool to process the part.

3)Simple program demonstration

Axis program demoAxis program demo

3. Swiss CNC lathes

the mechanical principle of swiss CNC lathes are similar to the CNC Turning Machine, and the manufactured products are mainly hardware;

Swiss CNC latheSwiss CNC lathe

Swiss CNC lathe

4. Vertical machining center

Vertical machining center Vertical machining center

1. Figure ① is the overall appearance of the machine tool;

2. Figure ② is the internal structure of the machine tool;

3. Figure ③ is the control panel of the machine tool;

4. Figure ④ is the tool magazine;

5. Figure ⑤ is the machine tool spindle (also called power axis);

6. Common machining centers are 3 axes, X, Y, and Z axes, but the speciality of some processed products will increase the fourth rotation axis. Tip position; (There are also five-axis linkage large horizontal plus)

1) vertical machining center cutting tool

The tool system is a device that provides the tool storage and tool change requirements for automated processing. Its automatic tool changing mechanism and a system that can store multiple tools change. With the control of computer programs, various processing requirements can be completed, such as milling, drilling, boring, tapping, etc.

Vertical display machining center toolsVertical display machining center tools

Tool change status

The tool structure of the machining center is composed of a shank, a spring bucket clamp, a pull nail, etc .;

Tool for machining centerTool for machining centerTool for machining center

Tool for machining center

Control Panel of Vertical Machining Center

Control panel of vertical machining centerControl panel of vertical machining center

Characteristics and Functions of Vertical Machining Centers

Machining centers are developed from CNC milling machines. The biggest difference from the CNC milling machine is that the machining center has the ability to automatically exchange machining tools. By installing tools for different purposes on the tool magazine, the machining tools on the spindle can be changed by an automatic tool changer in one clamping to achieve a variety of machining. Features.

NC machining center is a high-efficiency automatic machine tool composed of mechanical equipment and numerical control system, suitable for processing complex parts. CNC machining center is one of the world's highest output and most widely used CNC machine tools. Its comprehensive processing ability is strong, the workpiece can complete more processing content after one clamping, the machining accuracy is high, batch workpieces with medium processing difficulty, its efficiency is 5-10 times that of ordinary equipment, especially it can complete Many ordinary equipment can't complete the processing, which is more suitable for single-piece processing with complex shapes and high precision requirements or multi-variety production of small and medium batches. It concentrates the functions of milling, boring, drilling, tapping and thread cutting on a single device, giving it a variety of technological means. The machining centers are classified according to the spatial position of the spindle machining: horizontal and vertical machining centers. Classification according to process use: boring and milling machining centers, composite machining centers. There are special classifications according to functions: single-table, dual-table and multi-table machining centers. Single-axis, dual-axis, three-axis and machining centers with interchangeable headstocks.

5. Ordinary Milling Machine

Compared with the horizontal milling machine, the main difference between the vertical milling machine and the vertical milling machine is the vertical arrangement of the spindle. In addition to the different spindle layout, the table can be raised and lowered. End mills, chucks, drills, etc. can be used. It can mill keyway, plane, boring, etc. The horizontal milling machine can also use the above tools, but it is not as convenient as end milling. It is mainly possible to use a rack to enhance the strength of the tools (mainly three-sided edge milling cutters, sheet milling cutters, etc.). It can mill grooves, planes, and cut. Horizontal milling machines generally have end milling heads. Although this end milling head is not as powerful and rigid as a vertical milling machine, it is sufficient for end milling processing. This makes the overall function of horizontal milling machines more powerful than vertical milling machines. Vertical milling machines do not have this feature and cannot process workpieces suitable for horizontal milling. Productivity is higher than horizontal milling machines.

Milling machine (milling machine) mainly refers to a machine tool that uses a milling cutter to process various surfaces of a workpiece. Normally, the milling cutter mainly rotates, and the movement of the workpiece and the milling cutter is the feed motion. It can process planes, grooves, and various curved surfaces, gears, etc.

A milling machine is a machine tool that mills a workpiece with a milling cutter. In addition to milling planes, grooves, gear teeth, threads and spline shafts, milling machines can also process more complex profiles, which is more efficient than planing machines and is widely used in machinery manufacturing and repair departments.

Milling machine

6. Drilling Machine

Radial drill: It is a kind of hole processing equipment, which can be used for drilling, reaming, reaming, tapping and scraping the end face. Classified according to the clamping structure of the machine tool, the rock drill can be divided into hydraulic rock drill and mechanical rock drill. Among all kinds of drilling machines, radial drilling machines are easy to operate, flexible, and have a wide range of applications. They are typical, especially suitable for single or batch production of holes with large porous parts. They are common machine tools in general machining workshops.


Bench drill: It is also a kind of hole processing equipment, which can also be used for drilling, reaming, reaming, tapping and other forms of processing. Figures 1 and 2 of the table type rotary bed are only suitable for processing parts with relatively small apertures and parts, and Figure 3 can process parts with relatively large apertures.


Desktop tapping machine: Tapping machine is a machine tool that uses taps to process internal threads. It is the most widely used type of internal thread processing machine. According to the national machinery industry standard, the composition of the tapping machine series is divided into: desktop tapping machine-semi-automatic desktop tapping machine, vertical tapping machine, horizontal tapping machine. For some reason, one of the most widely used classifications that is not important is not included, namely the folding arm tapping machine (hydraulic tapping machine, electric tapping machine, pneumatic tapping machine).

Desktop tapping machineDesktop tapping machine

7. Grinding Machine

1)External Grinding Machine

Cylindrical grinders are grinders that process the outer surface and shoulder end surface of the cylindrical, conical or other shape of the workpiece; the most widely used, can grind a variety of cylindrical conical outer surfaces and shoulder end surface grinders;

The grinding accuracy of cylindrical grinders is generally: roundness does not exceed 3 microns, surface roughness Ra 0.63 ~ 0.32 microns; high precision cylindrical grinders can reach roundness of 0.1 microns and Ra 0.01 microns, respectively.

Grinder Machine

2) Flat Surface Grinding Machine

Surface grinder is a kind of grinder. A type of grinding machine that mainly grinds the workpiece with a grinding wheel to achieve the required flatness, and grinds the flat or formed surface of the workpiece. The main types are horizontal axis moment table, horizontal axis circle table, vertical axis moment table, vertical axis circle table and various special surface grinders.

Machining accuracy of surface grinder: parallelism: 0.01 / 300mm; surface roughness: Ra0.8 / μm.

Surface Grinder

3) Centerless grinding machine

Centerless grinding machine is a type of grinding machine that does not need to use the axial positioning of the workpiece. It is mainly composed of three mechanisms: a grinding wheel, an adjustment wheel, and a workpiece holder. The grinding wheel actually performs the grinding work. The adjustment wheel Control the rotation of the workpiece, and control the feed speed of the workpiece. As for the workpiece support to support the workpiece during grinding, there are several ways to cooperate with these three types of parts, except for stopping the grinding, which are the same in principle.

The grinding accuracy of centerless grinders is generally: roundness 2 μm, dimensional accuracy 4 μm, high-precision centerless grinders can reach 0.5 μm and 2 μm, respectively, and the roughness Ra1.0μm (but according to the drawing processing requirements, the highest can also reach Ra0.4 ~ 0.8 μm mirror required)

Centerless grinding machine

4) vibration grinding machine

Vibration grinders are used in bicycles, aluminum die castings, zinc die castings, furniture hardware, clothing hardware, luggage hardware, glasses accessories, watch accessories, locks, electronic accessories, various jewelry, jewelry and powder metallurgy, resins, etc .; for stainless steel , Iron, copper, zinc, aluminum, magnesium alloy and other materials through stamping, die-casting, casting, forging, for wire, ceramics, jade, coral, synthetic resin, plastic, porcelain and other materials surface polishing, chamfering, deburring, Derusting, rough polishing, precision polishing, gloss polishing.

It is suitable for the surface polishing, chamfering, deburring, polishing, and gloss polishing of small and medium-sized workpieces. After processing, the original shape and dimensional accuracy of the part will not be destroyed, the internal stress of the part can be eliminated, and the surface finish and accuracy of the part can be improved .


8. Automatic lathe

Automatic lathe is a high-performance, high-precision, low-noise walking-type automatic lathe. It is an automatic processing machine tool that controls the processing program by cam. In addition, there are some CNC automatic lathes, pneumatic automatic lathes, and walking-type automatic lathes. The basic core is that they can automatically process the same product for a long time after certain settings and adjustments. Suitable for copper, aluminum, iron, plastic and other precision parts processing and manufacturing, suitable for instruments, clocks, automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles, glasses, stationery, hardware bathroom, electronic parts, connectors, computers, mobile phones, mechanical and electrical, military industries Machining small parts, especially more complex parts;

Features: 1. Walking-type machining process, 2. Knife-type machining process, 3. High dimensional control accuracy, 4. Automatic feeding, 5. High production efficiency, 6. Feeding automation and automatic cutting tool walking use cams To control.

Automatic latheAutomatic lathe

9.Sawing Machine

Horizontal band sawing machine is mainly used for sawing all kinds of metal and non-metallic materials. It can meet users' sawing and processing of various materials. It is an indispensable cutting equipment for the machinery industry.

Band sawing machine is a machine tool for cutting various metal materials. It is divided into horizontal and vertical according to the structure; it is divided into semi-automatic, full-automatic and numerical control according to its function. Horizontal can be divided into double columns and scissors.

Sawing MachineSawing Machine

10. The Punch press

1)The hydraulic press is a press that uses a hydraulic cylinder to generate compressive force. The hydraulic press was invented by Joseph Brama of the United Kingdom. The hydraulic press was invented in 1795 and applied for a patent. Brama applied the concept to a press after studying the literature on fluid motion at the time.

Hydraulic presses are commonly used in forging, riveting, molding, blanking, deep drawing and metal forming processes.

2) CNC Punching machine

Punching machine: The punching process is a production technology that uses the power of conventional or special stamping equipment to directly deform the sheet material in the mold and deform it to obtain a certain shape, size and performance of product parts. Sheets, dies and equipment are the three elements of stamping. Stamping is a method of cold deformation of metal. Therefore, it is called cold stamping or sheet stamping, which is called stamping for short. It is one of the main methods for metal plastic processing (or pressure processing) and also belongs to material forming engineering technology.

CNC Punching machine

NC punch is an abbreviation of digital control punch, which is an automatic machine tool equipped with a program control system. The control system can logically process and decode a program specified by a control code or other symbolic instructions, thereby causing the punch to operate and process the part.

PLC is the brain of CNC punch. Compared with ordinary punch, CNC punch has the following characteristics:

● High processing accuracy and stable processing quality;

● Large processing format: 1.5m * 5m processing format can be completed at one time;

● Multi-coordinate linkage can be performed, and parts with complex shapes can be processed, such as shear forming;

● When the processing parts are changed, generally only the NC program needs to be changed, which can save production preparation time;

● The punching machine itself has high precision and rigidity, which can choose favorable processing amount and high productivity;

● The high degree of automation of the punch can reduce the labor intensity;

● Easy operation, with a certain basic computer knowledge training can be used in 2-3 days;

3) Friction Press

Friction press is a kind of versatile press processing machine, which is widely used and can be used in various industries of pressure processing. In the machinery manufacturing industry, friction presses are more widely used and can be used to complete die forging, upset forging, bending, correction, precision pressing and other tasks. Some non-flashing forgings are also completed with this press.

Friction pressFriction press

11.Forging Machine

A forging machine refers to a machine that uses a hammer or the like to make a metal material in a plastic state into a workpiece having a certain shape and size, and changes its physical properties. The forging hammer forged in a forging machine is very similar to press machinery (especially a forging press) in terms of workability, but as the former forging hammer, the reaction force generated by the processing is not borne by the bed but by the foundation of the machine command This is fundamentally different from the latter press.

In the case of an anvil-separated forging hammer, which is often used for free forging, this structural difference will be further apparent. In short, high-speed hammering of the workpiece with a heavy forging hammer end will produce strong shock vibration.

Forging Machine

12. Die Casting Machine

Die casting is a metal casting process, which is characterized by applying high pressure to the molten metal using the mold cavity. Molds are usually machined from stronger alloys, a process similar to injection molding. Most die castings are iron-free, such as zinc, copper, aluminum, magnesium, lead, tin, and lead-tin alloys and their alloys. Depending on the type of die casting, a cold chamber die casting machine or a hot chamber die casting machine is required.

The cost of foundry equipment and molds is high, so the die casting process is generally only used to manufacture a large number of products. It is relatively easy to manufacture die-cast parts, which generally only requires four main steps, and the single cost increase is very low. Die casting is particularly suitable for manufacturing a large number of small and medium-sized castings, so die casting is the most widely used in various casting processes. Compared with other casting technologies, the surface of die casting is flatter and has higher dimensional consistency.

 Die Casting Machine

13. Laser Cutting Machine

The laser cutting machine focuses the laser light emitted from the laser into a high power density laser beam through the optical path system. The laser beam is irradiated to the surface of the workpiece, so that the workpiece reaches the melting point or boiling point, and the high-pressure gas coaxial with the beam blows away the molten or vaporized metal.

With the movement of the relative position of the beam and the workpiece, the material finally forms a slit, so as to achieve the purpose of cutting.

The laser cutting process replaces the traditional mechanical knife with an invisible light beam. It has the characteristics of high accuracy, fast cutting, not limited to cutting pattern restrictions, automatic typesetting to save materials, smooth cuts, and low processing costs. It will gradually improve or replace Traditional metal cutting process equipment. Small cutting heat-affected zone, small plate deformation, and narrow slit (0.1mm ~ 0.3mm); no mechanical stress and no shear burr; high processing accuracy, good repeatability, and no damage to the surface of the material; CNC programming, can process any The floor plan can cut the entire board with a large format without opening a mold, which is economical and time-saving.

Laser Cutting Machine

14. Bending machine

The bending machine is a machine capable of bending thin plates. Its structure mainly includes a bracket, a table and a clamping plate. The table is placed on the bracket. The table is composed of a base and a pressing plate. The base is connected to the clamping plate by a hinge. The base is composed of a seat shell, a coil and a cover plate. The coil is placed in the recess of the seat shell, and the top of the recess is covered with a cover plate. When in use, the coil is energized by the wire, and after the current is energized, the pressure plate is attracted, thereby clamping the thin plate between the pressure plate and the base. Due to the use of electromagnetic force clamping, the pressure plate can be made into a variety of workpiece requirements, and workpieces with side walls can be processed, and the operation is very simple.

Bending machine

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